Assistant Professor of Marketing, IE Business School
The concept of olfactory imagery is introduced and the conditions under which imagining what a food smells like (referred to here as “smellizing” it) impacts consumer response are explored.
Consumer response is measured by: salivation change (studies 1 and 2), actual food consumption (study 3), and self-reported desire to eat (study 4). The results show that imagined odors can enhance consumer response but only when the consumer creates a vivid visual mental representation of the odor referent (the object emitting the odor).
The results demonstrate the interactive effects of olfactory and visual imagery in generating approach behaviors to food cues in advertisements.
Smellizing Cookies and Salivating: A Focus on Olfactory Imagery
with Aradhna Krishna and Morrin Maureen (2014) at the Journal of Consumer Research, 41, 1, 18-34
The amount of crime that individuals are exposed to on a daily basis is growing, resulting in increased anxiety about being alone in some public places. The fear of crime usually results in avoidance of places that are perceived to be unsafe and such avoidance can have negative financial consequences for these places. What can be done to reduce fear in relatively safe public places which are nevertheless perceived as being unsafe?
In this paper, we focus on the effect of auditory input on perceptions of safety and satisfaction with the experience in public places. In one field study done in an underground Parisian car park and three laboratory studies, we demonstrate that the type of ambient sound influences consumers’ satisfaction in public places; furthermore, the effect of sound on satisfaction is mediated by perceived social presence and perceived safety – different sounds convey social presence to a different degree and when perceived social presence is higher, perceived safety is also higher, leading to higher satisfaction.
Feeling Attached to Symbolic Brands within the Context of Brand Transgressions
with Zeynep Gurhan-Canli (2015) at the Review of Marketing Research, Review of Marketing Research, 12, 237-259.
Sound and Safe: The Effect of Ambient Sound on Perceived Safety of Public Spaces
with Aradhna Krishna, Caroline Ardelet, Gwenaelle Briand Decree, and Alain Goudey (2015) at the International Journal of Research in Marketing
Any behavior that violates the norms of the consumer-brand relationship is perceived as a brand transgression.
We identify four different types of brand transgressions: Transgressions about the (1) Expressive, (2) Exclusive, (3) Expert, and (4) Emphatic nature of the brand. We discuss the possible effects of attachment levels on consumers’ reaction toward a brand within the context of these transgressions.
Additionally, we articulate the moderating effects of four consumer motives (need for self-enhancement, need for uniqueness, need for risk avoidance and need for justice) on consumer reactions after different brand transgressions.